Author(s): M. M. Thwala, A. Afantitis, A. G. Papadiamantis, A. Tsoumanis, G. Melagraki, L. N. Dlamini, et al.

Source: Structural Chemistry

Abstract: Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are being studied for their potential to harm humans and the environment. Biological activity, toxicity, physicochemical properties, fate, and transport of NPs must all be evaluated and/or predicted. In this work, we explored the influence of metal oxide nanoparticle facets on their toxicity towards bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B), Murine myeloid (RAW 264.7), and E. coli cell lines. To estimate the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles grown to a low facet index, a quantitative structure–activity relationship ((Q)SAR) approach was used. The novel model employs theoretical (density functional theory calculations) and experimental studies (transmission electron microscopy images from which several particle descriptors are extracted and toxicity data extracted from the literature) to investigate the properties of faceted metal oxides, which are then utilized to construct a toxicity model. The classification mode of the k-nearest neighbour algorithm (EnaloskNN, Enalos Chem/Nanoinformatics) was used to create the presented model for metal oxide cytotoxicity. Four descriptors were identified as significant: core size, chemical potential, enthalpy of formation, and electronegativity count of metal oxides. The relationship between these descriptors and metal oxide facets is discussed to provide insights into the relative toxicities of the nanoparticle. The model and the underpinning dataset are freely available on the NanoSolveIT project cloud platform and the NanoPharos database, respectively.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity; Nano-(Q)SAR; Facets; Descriptors; Nanotopography