Author(s): Utemb, W., and Sanabria, N.
Source: Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 19, 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/ecas2022-12801
Abstract: The estimation of the dose of inhaled nanomaterials is of fundamental importance in occupational and environmental health. Indeed, the toxicology and risk assessment of inhaled NMs depends on deposition rates in various parts of the lung, coupled with clearance/retention rates that depend on processes such as physical removal by ciliary clearance, macrophage-mediated clearance and lymphatic clearance, together with dissolution and disintegration. A number of lung dosimetry models have been designed to estimate the deposition and retention of inhaled particles, including empirical models, deterministic models, stochastic statistical models and mechanistic multiple-path models. Various assumptions are used in these models, including use of a symmetrical or asymmetrical lung, which affects the performance of these models. This study presents the most recent developments of in vivo dosimetry in nanotoxicology, with a focus on the design and modelling approach, and the required input data used, together with verification and validation status of the model. Widely implemented models in nanotoxicology were identified and analyzed, i.e., the Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD) model, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) model, the Exposure Dose Model (ExDoM) and the Integrated Exposure and Dose Modeling and Analysis System (EDMAS).
Keywords: lung dosimetry; modelling; inhalation; nanomaterials; nanotoxicology