Author(s): OF Fagbohun, JS Joseph, OA Salami, TAM Msagati

Source: Biological Trace Element Research. 2020 Jul 8:1-6

Abstract: The use of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. plant dates back to last century. The different parts of the plant exhibited various pharmacological activities. But literature search revealed scanty use of the leaf extract owing to few information regarding the various phytochemicalconstituents. The aim of this study is, therefore, to profile the chemical compounds through the use of omics-based approach. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (qTOF-UPLC/MS) alongside gas chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (qTOF-GC/MS) were used to profile these chemical compounds. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used to determine the concentration of trace elements as well as limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ). For broader metabolite determination, a modified sample preparation was employed and to ascertain the cytoprotective potential of the leaf extract, MTT assay on A375 human melanoma cell lines was carried out. Sixty-eight peaks were characterized with the identification of 275 metabolites where 8 of these were confirmed. Of importance is the identification of eugenol; a polyphenolic compound at m/z 165.09 on fragments 119.09, 147.08, 109.10, 137.10, and 137.06. for qTOF-GC/MS analysis, 232 metabolites were identified consisting of terpenes, fatty acids, furans, amines, amides, and alkanes. The concentration of trace elements in the leaf extract ranged from 0.08 for Zn to 0.28 mg/kg for Fe with low concentrations of Cd according to the recommendation of European Legislation. The leaf showed higher inhibition of growth against A375 human melanoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. The results showed that K. africana leaf contained various pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, designer drugs, and phytochemicals, and these chemicals have minimal cytotoxic side effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing information on the various secondary metabolites in the leaf extract through the use of omics-based approach. Therefore, the leaves of K. africana plant can be used as antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiproliferative agents for industrial, therapeutic, and medicinal applications. Graphical Abstract.

Keywords: GC-qTOF-MS; ICP-OES; Kigelia africana leaf; MTT; Metabolomic profiling; UHPLC-qTOF-MS.