Author(s): W. Utembe, H. Clewell, N. Sanabria, P. Doganis and M. Gulumian
Source: Nanomaterials. 2020 Jul; 10(7): 1267
Abstract: There have been efforts to develop physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for nanomaterials (NMs). Since NMs have quite different kinetic behaviors, the applicability of the approaches and techniques that are utilized in current PBPK models for NMs is warranted. Most PBPK models simulate a size-independent endocytosis from tissues or blood. In the lungs, dosimetry and the air-liquid interface (ALI) models have sometimes been used to estimate NM deposition and translocation into the circulatory system. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, kinetics data are needed for mechanistic understanding of NM behavior as well as their absorption through GI mucus and their subsequent hepatobiliary excretion into feces. Following absorption, permeability (Pt) and partition coefficients (PCs) are needed to simulate partitioning from the circulatory system into various organs. Furthermore, mechanistic modelling of organ- and species-specific NM corona formation is in its infancy. More recently, some PBPK models have included the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Most notably, dissolution, a key elimination process for NMs, is only empirically added in some PBPK models. Nevertheless, despite the many challenges still present, there have been great advances in the development and application of PBPK models for hazard assessment and risk assessment of NMs.