Author(s): Molewa, M.L., Barnard, T., Naicker, N.

Source: Int. J. Adv. Multidiscip. Res. (2023). 10(3): 20-40; DOI:

Abstract: Historically, cockroaches have been primarily targeted with chemical insecticides. However, the extensive use and overuse of chemical insecticides has led to a growing phenomenon of pesticide resistance in cockroaches. This scoping review aims to evaluate and discuss different control strategies used for domestic cockroaches (B. germanica, B.orientalis and P. americana).Studies were searched through PubMed, ScienceDirect, EBCOHOST, Springer Link, Wiley Online Library and Cambridge for a period between January 1990 and December 2022. Cockroach studies were considered relevant if they included at least one control strategies. Eligible studies were identified through the principles of Preferred Reporting Item for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The search identified 264 studies without duplication and 70 full text studies were found to be eligible for the scoping review. The most frequently studied control strategies were chemical (conventional) strategies (n= 31), integrated pest management (IPM) strategies (n=18), biopesticides (n=12) and non-chemical strategies (n=10). The scoping review provides evidence that IPM can lead to long-term reductions in cockroach infestation and as well as a decreased allergen concentration. The study identified the insect growth regulators (IGRs) and biopesticides, mainly essential oils (EOs) emerging as potential futuristic control strategies evidently proven to be sustainable and safer than the application of poisonous chemicals. Few studies investigated B. orientalis. Future studies should be conducted precisely on more conventional and future cockroach control strategies for P. americana and B. orientalis.

Keywords: Cockroaches pest control; insecticides; baits; traps; biopesticide; integrated pest control